U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Social Determinants of Health [online]. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 20]. available from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-healthexternal icon
 Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, et al. Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:759–765. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2external icon.
 Killerby ME, Link-Gelles R, Haight SC, et al. Characteristics Associated with Hospitalization Among Patients with COVID-19 — Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, March–April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 17 June 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6925e1external icon.
 Gold JA, Wong KK, Szablewski CM, et al. Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Adult Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 — Georgia, March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:545–550. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6918e1external icon.
 Price-Haygood EG, Burton J, Fort D, Seoane L. Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsa2011686external icon.
 Millet GA, Jones AT, Benkeser D, et al. Assessing Differential Impacts of COVID-19 on Black Communities. Ann Epidemiol. 2020;47:37-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.003external icon.
 Paradies Y. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35(4):888–901. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl056external icon.
 Simons RL, Lei MK, Beach SRH, et al. Discrimination, segregation, and chronic inflammation: Testing the weathering explanation for the poor health of Black Americans. Dev Psychol. 2018;54(10):1993-2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000511external icon.
 Cordes J, Castro MC. Spatial Analysis of COVID-19 Clusters and Contextual Factors in New York City. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2020;34:100355. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.sste.2020.100355external icon.
 Berchick, Edward R., Jessica C. Barnett, and Rachel D. Upton Current Population Reports, P60-267(RV), Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2018, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2019.
 Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. Care Without Coverage: Too Little, Too Late. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/10367external icon.
 Institute of Medicine. 2003. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/10260external icon.
 U.S. National Library of Medicine. Native Voices: Timeline: Government admits forced sterilization of Indian Women [online]. 2011 [cited 2020 Jun 24]. Available from URL: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/543.htmlexternal icon
 Novak NL, Lira N, O’Connor KE, Harlow SD, Kardia SLR, Stern AM. Disproportionate Sterilization of Latinos Under California’s Eugenic Sterilization Program, 1920-1945. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(5):611-613. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2105%2FAJPH.2018.304369external icon.
 Stern AM. Sterilized in the name of public health: race, immigration, and reproductive control in modern California. Am J Public Health. 2005 Jul;95(7):1128-38. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2105%2FAJPH.2004.041608external icon.
 Prather C, Fuller TR, Jeffries WL 4th, et al. Racism, African American Women, and Their Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Historical and Contemporary Evidence and Implications for Health Equity. Health Equity. 2018;2(1):249-259. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1089%2Fheq.2017.0045external icon.
 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018 [online]. 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 24]. Available from URL: https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2018/home.htmexternal icon
 Economic Policy Institute. Black workers face two of the most lethal preexisting conditions for coronavirus—racism and economic inequality [online]. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 28]. Available from URL: https://www.epi.org/publication/black-workers-covid/external icon
 The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Unequal Opportunities in Education [online]. 2006 [cited 2020 Jun 24]. Available from: https://www.aecf.org/m/resourcedoc/aecf-racemattersEDUCATION-2006.pdfpdf iconexternal icon
 Wadhera RK, Wadhera P, Gaba P, Figueroa JF, Joynt Maddox KE, Yeh RW, & Shen C. Variation in COVID-19 Hospitalizations and Deaths Across New York City Boroughs. JAMA. 2020;323(21),2192–2195. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7197external icon
 Kim SJ, Bostwick W. Social Vulnerability and Racial Inequality in COVID-19 Deaths in Chicago. Health Educ Behav. 2020;47(4):509-513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198120929677external icon.
 Webb Hooper M, Nápoles AM, Pérez-Stable EJ. COVID-19 and Racial/Ethnic Disparities. JAMA. 2020;323(24):2466–2467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8598external icon.