SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern | CDC




Selected Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
Name
(
Pango lineage) 
Substitution Name
(Nextstraina)
First Detected BEI Reference Isolateb

Predicted Attributes

B.1.526 Spike: (L5F*), T95I, D253G, (S477N*), (E484K*), D614G, (A701V*)
ORF1a: L3201P, T265I, Δ3675/3677
ORF1b: P314L, Q1011H
ORF3a: P42L, Q57H
ORF8: T11I
5’UTR: R81C
20C New York/November 2020
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatments
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera
B.1.525 Spike: A67V, Δ69/70, Δ144, E484K, D614G, Q677H, F888L
ORF1b: P314F
ORF1a: T2007I
M: I82T
N: A12G, T205I
5’UTR: R81C
20C New York/December 2020
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatments
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera
P.2 Spike: E484K, D614G, V1176F
ORF1a: L3468V, L3930F
ORF1b: P314L
N: A119S, R203K, G204R, M234I
5’UTR: R81C
20J Brazil/April 2020
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatments
  • Potential reduction in neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera

 

(*)=detected in some sequences but not all
a – Nextstrainexternal icon
b – The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources (BEI Resources) is a NIAID-funded repository to provide reagents, tools, and information to the research community. The reference viruses proposed here facilitate the harmonization of information among all stakeholders in the COVID-19 pandemic research community. Please note that the reference viruses provided in the tables below are based on what is currently available through the BEI resources.

 These variants share one specific mutation called D614G. This mutation was one of the first documented in the US in the initial stages of the pandemic, after having initially circulated in Europe[13]. There is evidence that variants with this mutation spread more quickly than viruses without this mutation [12external icon].

Variant of Concern

A variant for which there is evidence of an increase in transmissibility, more severe disease (increased hospitalizations or deaths), significant reduction in neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, or diagnostic detection failures.

Possible attributes of a variant of concern:

In addition to the possible attributes of a variant of interest

  • Evidence of impact on diagnostics, treatments, and vaccines
    • Widespread interference with diagnostic test targets
    • Evidence of substantially increased resistance to one or more class of therapies
    • Evidence of significant decreased neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination
    • Evidence of reduced vaccine-induced protection from severe disease
  • Evidence of increased transmissibility
  • Evidence of increased disease severity

Variants of concern might require one or more appropriate public health actions, such as notification to WHO under the International Health Regulations, reporting to CDC, local or regional efforts to control spread, increased testing, or research to determine the effectiveness of vaccines and treatments against the variant. Based on the characteristics of the variant, additional considerations may include the development of new diagnostics or the modification of vaccines or treatments.

Current variants of concern in the United States that are being closely monitored and characterized by federal agencies are included in the table below. The table will be updated when a new variant of concern is identified.

Selected Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
Name
(Pango lineage)
Spike Protein Substitutions

Name
(Nextstraina)

First Detected BEI Reference Isolateb

Known Attributes

B.1.1.7 Δ69/70
Δ144Y
(E484K*)
(S494P*)
N501Y
A570D
D614G
P681H
20I/501Y.V1 United Kingdom NR-54000external icon
  • ~50% increased transmission 5
  • Likely increased severity based on hospitalizations and case fatality rates 6
  • Minimal impact on neutralization by EUA monoclonal antibody therapeutics 7, 14
  • Minimal impact on neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera 8,9,10,11,12,13,19

 

P.1 K417N/T
E484K
N501Y
D614G
20J/501Y.V3 Japan/
Brazil
NR-54982external icon
  • Moderate impact on neutralization by EUA monoclonal antibody therapeutics 7,14
  • Reduced neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera 15
B.1.351 K417N
E484K
N501Y
D614G
20H/501.V2 South Africa NR-54009external icon
  • ~50% increased transmission16
  •  Moderate impact on neutralization by EUA monoclonal antibody therapeutics 7,14
  • Moderate reduction on neutralization by convalescent and post-vaccination sera 8,12,18,19,20
B.1.427 L452R
D614G
20C/S:452R US-California
  • ~20% increased transmissibility 21
  • Significant impact on neutralization by some, but not all, EUA therapeutics
  • Moderate reduction in neutralization using convalescent and post-vaccination sera 21
B.1.429 S13I
W152C
L452R
D614G
20C/S:452R US-California
  • ~20% increased transmissibility 21
  • Significant impact on neutralization by some, but not all, EUA therapeutics
  • Moderate reduction in neutralization using convalescent and post-vaccination sera 21

(*)=detected in some sequences but not all
a –
Nextstrainexternal icon
b – The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources (BEI Resources) is a NIAID-funded repository to provide reagents, tools, and information to the research community. The reference viruses proposed here facilitate the harmonization of information among all stakeholders in the COVID-19 pandemic research community. Please note that the reference viruses provided in the tables below are based on what is currently available through the BEI resources.

 These variants share one specific mutation called D614G. This mutation was one of the first documented in the US in the initial stages of the pandemic, after having initially circulated in Europe[13]. There is  evidence that variants with this mutation spread more quickly than viruses without this mutation [12external icon].

Variant of High Consequence

 A variant of high consequence has clear evidence that prevention measures or medical countermeasures (MCMs) have significantly reduced effectiveness relative to previously circulating variants.

Possible attributes of a variant of high consequence:

In addition to the possible attributes of a variant of concern

  • Impact on Medical Countermeasures (MCM)
    • Demonstrated failure of diagnostics
    • Evidence to suggest a significant reduction in vaccine effectiveness, a disproportionately high number of vaccine breakthrough cases, or very low vaccine-induced protection against severe disease
    • Significantly reduced susceptibility to multiple Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or approved therapeutics
    • More severe clinical disease and increased hospitalizations

A variant of high consequence would require public health officials declare a PHEIC (if not already declared), reporting to CDC, an announcement of strategies to prevent or contain transmission, and recommendations to update treatments and vaccines.

Currently there are no SARS-CoV-2 variants that rise to the level of high consequence.

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